Vertex Intersection Graphs of Paths on a Grid
Vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129-150, 2012. Regular paper.
Abstract We investigate the class of vertex intersection graphs of paths on a grid, and specifically consider the subclasses that are obtained when each path in the representation has at most k bends (turns). We call such a subclass the Bk-VPG graphs, k ≥ 0. In chip manufacturing, circuit layout is modeled as paths (wires) on a grid, where it is natural to constrain the number of bends per wire for reasons of feasibility and to reduce the cost of the chip.
If the number k of bends is not restricted, then the VPG graphs are equivalent to the well-known class of string graphs, namely, the intersection graphs of arbitrary curves in the plane. In the case of B0-VPG graphs, we observe that horizontal and vertical segments have strong Helly number 2, and thus the clique problem has polynomial-time complexity, given the path representation. The recognition and coloring problems for B0-VPG graphs, however, are NP-complete. We give a 2-approximation algorithm for coloring B0-VPG graphs. Furthermore, we prove that triangle-free B0-VPG graphs are 4-colorable, and this is best possible.
We present a hierarchy of VPG graphs relating them to other known families of graphs. The grid intersection graphs are shown to be equivalent to the bipartite B0-VPG graphs and the circle graphs are strictly contained in B1-VPG. We prove the strict containment of B0-VPG into B1-VPG, and we conjecture that, in general, this strict containment continues for all values of k. We present a graph which is not in B1-VPG. Planar graphs are known to be in the class of string graphs, and we prove here that planar graphs are B3-VPG graphs, although it is not known if this is best possible.
Submitted: December 2010.
Reviewed: September 2011.
Revised: October 2011.
Reviewed: October 2011.
Revised: November 2011.
Accepted: November 2011.
Final: December 2011.
Published: January 2012.
Communicated by Tandy Warnow
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